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As I mentioned earlier, part of my fall schedule is to give a repeat of this spring’s sold-out seminar: “High-Performance and Low-Latency C++” (October 9-11, London, UK).

I am still getting mails about whether there are alternative/additional European dates for this seminar. Unfortunately, the answer is still no, but since I’m getting inquiries about it let me repeat that part of the earlier post:

On October 9-11, I’ll be in London giving a one-time repeat of “High-Performance and Low-Latency C++” (course details page). This is the same as the public course I gave in Stockholm [in April]; because that course sold out, and I was coming to Europe again for Qt World Summit anyway, we decided to do a single repeat that same week, this time in London.

Notes: (1) Some of you have emailed me asking if there will be other dates/cities, and the answer is no, sorry, I do seminars very rarely and this is the last one I have time to do for the foreseeable future. So if you are interested then this is the one to attend. (2) Some of you have also emailed me to ask whether the seminar will be recorded, and the answer is again no, sorry, the organizers are not set up for that. However, you can find all of my past Effective Concurrency writing (on which parts of this course are based) freely available via this blog, just search for that phrase or use the category tag — there’s a book’s worth of free material written by me in individual-article form.

So, if you’re interested, I hope you’ll be able to attend this October, and I look forward to seeing many of you there.

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I’ve been working on an experimental new C++ language feature tentatively called “metaclasses” that aims to make C++ programming both more powerful and simpler. You can find out about it here:

  • Current proposal paper: P0707R1. I hope the first ten pages give a readable motivation and overview. (The best two pages to start with are 9 and 10, which probably means I need to reorder the paper…)
  • Initial intro talk video: ACCU 2017 (YouTube). This is the initial public presentation three months ago. Thank you to Roger Orr, Russel Winder, Julie Archer, and the other ACCU organizers for inviting me and for holding back the video until we could have the ISO C++ summer meeting about a week ago, so it could go live along with a report (herein) on the results of this feature’s first presentation to the ISO C++ committee. And special thanks to Ina and Arvid, the two audience volunteers who graciously agreed to come on-stage to participate in a live mini UX study. There’s a lot of subtle information in their nuanced reactions to the code examples; pay special attention when their responses are different or as their responses evolve.
  • “Incomplete and experimental” prototype compiler. The Clang-based prototype by Andrew Sutton is available as an online live compiler at cppx.godbolt.org, and as source at github.com/asutton/clang. It’s incomplete but can compile a number of the examples in the paper (see the paper for example code links). Thanks to Matt Godbolt for hosting it on godbolt.org!

Please see the paper and video to answer “what are metaclasses and why should I care?” If you’re the “show me code first, English later” kind of person, try the live compiler and these quick examples: interface, base_class, value (regular type), plain_struct (these links are also in the paper).

The rest of this post aims not to duplicate any information above, but to provide some context about the broader journey, and what I and others are attempting to accomplish.

A journey: Toward more powerful and simpler C++ programming

Phase 1: By using the existing language better

About five years ago, I started working on long-term effort toward making using C++ simpler and safer.

In the first phase, a small group of us—centered on Bjarne Stroustrup, Gabriel Dos Reis, Neil MacIntosh and Andrew Pardoe—pushed to see how far we could get with “C++ as it is” plus just a few well-chosen library-only extensions, with a particular goal of improving type and memory safety. Bjarne, Neil, and I first publicly reported on this effort in the two CppCon 2015 plenary sessions “Writing Good C++14” and “Writing Good C++14… By Default.” The results of that work so far have manifested as the C++ Core Guidelines and its support library GSL that adds a limited number of library types (e.g., span, now being standardized); and I led the Lifetime design in particular (available in the Guidelines /docs folder) which Neil and I and others continue to work on formalizing with the aim of sharing a “draft” static analysis spec later this year.

One of the goals of this phase was to answer the question: “How much progress can we make toward simplifying the existing C++ language with only a few key library extensions?” The answer as I see it turned out to be: “Some solid progress, but probably not a major simplification.” And so that answer led to phase two…

Phase 2: By evolving the language

Two years ago, I started to focus specifically on exploring ways that we might evolve the C++ language itself to make C++ programming both more powerful and simpler. The only way to accomplish both of those goals at the same time is by adding abstractions that let programmers directly express their intent—to elevate comments and documentation to testable code, and elevate coding patterns and idioms into compiler-checkable declarations. The work came up with several potential candidate features where judiciously adding some power to the language could simplify code dramatically.

Of those potential candidate features, metaclasses is the first major piece I picked to propose for ISO C++. [*] We presented it for the first time at the summer ISO C++ meeting earlier this month, and it received a warm reception. There was (rare) unanimous support for pursuing this kind of capability, but also some concern about how best to expose it and specific design change feedback the committee wants us to apply to improve the proposal. [**] We’ll work to include in a revision for the November standards meeting as we start the multi-year process of vetting and refining the proposal. So this is good progress, but note that it (only) means encouragement to continue the experiment and see where it leads; it’s far too early to talk about potential ship vehicles.

So do expect change: The proposal is still evolving, and it in turn assumes and builds on the static reflection proposal (P0578 et al.) and the compile-time programming proposal (P0633), both of which are actively evolving in their own right. Incidentally, one of the contributions of Andrew Sutton’s prototype metaclasses compiler is that it is implementing those other proposals too(!), since the metaclasses feature needs them. The aim is to keep the latest compiler and the latest P0707 paper in sync with each other and with those related proposals, but there will doubtless be occasional drift in between syncs.

What’s next

I’ll talk about metaclasses more in my upcoming CppCon 2017 talk this September, and Andrew Sutton will also be giving two CppCon talks about metaclasses—one about implementing them in Clang, and one about using them for a real project.

This is just the beginning, and we’ll see whether it all pans out and leads somewhere, but I hope you enjoy this exploration and I look forward to talking with many of you about it at CppCon this September.

 

———

Notes

[*] I actually brought a smaller piece from this same work to the committee at the previous meeting, the winter meeting in Kona: P0515 (consistent comparisons), which proposes adding the three-way <=> comparison operator. P0515 is only about a minor feature, and not one of the most important things that can help improve C++, so normally I wouldn’t have picked that piece to contribute first; but the committee was already continuing to actively discuss comparisons, so I cherry-picked it from my design work and contributed it since I had the design in my pocket anyway. Happily the committee liked what they saw and both EWG and LEWG accepted it, and it is now progressing well and on track to hopefully be voted into draft C++20 in the next meeting or two. Thanks to Jens Maurer and Walter Brown for the heavy lifting of writing the core language and library standardese wording, respectively, for that P0515 proposal.

[**] The committee’s design feedback was primarily about how to wrap up the transformation code: Instead of putting it inside a new “meta” class-like abstraction, how about wrapping the same code inside a compile-time function-like abstraction that takes an input meta::type parameter and returns a generated meta::type return value? This doesn’t affect the proposal’s basic engine, just the shape of its steering wheel—for example, we could change the first line of each example metaclass definition from the class-like syntax

$class interface {
    constexpr {
        // … basically same code …
    }
};

to the decorator-function-like syntax

meta::type interface(const meta::type source) {
    // … basically same code …
};

where the latter has the advantage that it’s easy to see that we’re reading one type and generating another type. Interestingly, I think this dovetails with the mini UX study in the video where most of the difficulty the UX participants seemed to encounter was in understanding the $class syntax, not the metaclass bodies and not later using the metaclasses to author new types.

But we’ll explore this and other options and validate/invalidate it with more experiments… and feel free to express your thoughts in the comments if you like one of these styles better, or perhaps another variation.

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No, we didn't meet at city hall, but this shot was taken from the primary hotel which was across the street from city hall. Also, this building appears in Star Trek: http://spacing.ca/toronto/2013/10/01/star-trek-toronto-city-hall/[This post will be updated with additional details as mentioned in the comments section at bottom.]

A few minutes ago, the ISO C++ committee completed its summer meeting in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We had some 120 people at the meeting, representing nine national bodies. As usual, we met for six days Monday through Saturday, including several evenings.

The following are some highlights of what we achieved this week. You can find a brief summary of ISO procedures here. The main things to note are:

  • “IS” means “international standard.” In our case, it’s the core C++ standard itself. Think of this as “trunk.”
  • “TS” means “technical specification,” a document separate from the main standard where we can gain experience with new features before putting them into the IS. We have several of these, summarized on the status page. Think of these as “beta branches.”

Note: As I reported in my previous trip report for the winter meeting (Kona 2017), we have already completed our work on C++17, which is now still going through its final ISO approval steps. Nothing we did this week affects C++17, but we did begin work on C++20…

First meeting for C++20

This was the first meeting where we could vote changes into Draft C++20. And we did!

First, the Concepts TS was merged into draft C++20. Yes, Concepts are back in the draft international standard and better than C++0x, which makes the famous concepts feature (principally driven by Bjarne Stroustrup, Gabriel Dos Reis, and Andrew Sutton) the first major language feature voted into draft C++20. Recall that Concepts was published as a separate TS two years ago, and available in GCC; today we voted to adopt nearly of it, except only the “introducer syntax” and “terse/natural syntax” for now because that syntax still has a handful of remaining issues that don’t have consensus, but it’s close and Evolution also voted unanimously to aggressively pursue adding the terse syntax as soon as possible once those design questions can be addressed. A few specific Concepts changes were also approved along with the merge, notably removing the need to write “bool” and removing function concepts until we see a need to overload concepts.

Here are some other features that were added to C++20 at this meeting. Note: These links currently find the most recent pre-meeting papers and so may not reflect the exact wording adopted at the meeting, but the links will light up to the post-meeting versions of the papers that were actually adopted as soon as those are available in the post-meeting mailing about three weeks from now.

One TS sent for its ISO ballot, three TSes completed to be published

We also spent quite a bit of the week working on three TSes that completed their review ballots, and sending out one more: The Modules TS is sent out for its comment and approval (PDTS) ballot. And the Coroutines TS, Networking TS, and Ranges TS are all done, as the groups worked hard to process and address all the comments from their ballots and we are sending them out for final publication. – It’s not every meeting that we publish three specifications! Some of them would have been handled at our last meeting, but we were busy finishing C++17 so they stacked up for this meeting.

Thank you very much again to all the volunteers who helped progress our proposals, send out our PDTSes, address our ballot comments and publish three (3) TSes, and get the C++20 cycle off to a roaring start.

Other progress

We considered merging one other published TS, the Concurrency TS. The feeling was that its three major features were in different stages of readiness, and some are advancing toward bring merged into C++20, possibly at our next meeting:

  • atomic_shared_ptr<T> is on track to be merged into C++20 with changes, in detailed standardese wording review and expected to be put up for approval at our next meeting. Interestingly, some of the changes are to make it more like the original design I proposed, including to name it atomic<shared_ptr<T>>.
  • Latches are also approved, essentially as-is, and the feature is in wording review for the next meeting.
  • Barriers are also potentially on track for C++20 but SG1 is still discussing open design problems. Its design can be expected to change substantially from the TS version.
  • Some minor pieces of the future extensions are moving ahead, but the extension has several unresolved design issues including to coordinate with the (we hope soon-coming) executors design.

Other items making progress for possible consideration to be adopted in the fall meeting:

The Library Evolution group has started discussing at how to integrate modules and contracts into the standard library. They expect to start integrating concepts next meeting, which is a big benefit of getting a major feature merged early in the C++20 cycle. They are also actively working on Unicode support, several new containers, and a date library, among other things.

We also continued incubating other work. In particular, the Reflection study group had presentations, and gave direction and feedback, on a few additions to the static reflection proposal that is already progressing in the main subgroups, the compile-time programming proposal, and my new metaclasses paper. (I’ll post a separate report on the metaclasses part soon, probably in the next week or so, with a link to the ACCU video.)

What’s next

In my trip report last fall, two meetings ago, I wrote: “Then, once C++17 ships next year and possibly as soon as our July meeting, I expect we’ll start looking at merging more of the TS ‘beta branches’ into the C++ ‘trunk.’”

Well, that’s exactly what happened: We did finish C++17 at the next meeting, and now at the meeting after that we did merge our first major TS into the C++ trunk.

Here’s an updated snapshot of our status (the latest is always on the isocpp.org/std/status page):

wg21-timeline-2017-07b

Thank you again to the 120 experts in Toronto this week, and the many more who participate in standardization through their national bodies! Have a good summer – and see you at CppCon!

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[6/26: Updated to add ACAT]

I can’t remember the last time I’ve gone to Europe twice in one year, but this is the year… up first are ACAT in August and CppCon in September, then a week later in early October I’ll be heading to London to give a single repeat of the three-day High-Performance and Low Latency C++ course, in the same week that I’ll be in Europe already to give a keynote at Qt World Summit in Berlin.

Aug 21-25: ACAT

This year I’ll be giving a keynote at ACAT (topic and day tbd). Unfortunately I cannot be there in person due to conflicts, but the organizers are graciously making arrangements for a remote presentation.

Mon-Fri Sep 25-29*: CppCon (Seattle)

I’ll be giving a brand-new talk at CppCon. If you haven’t registered yet for CppCon but are thinking of coming, note that the Early Bird discount ends on July 7, the end of next week.

* Those are the dates of the 5-day core conference, but technically the full dates are Sep 23 – Oct 1 because CppCon has grown into, somewhat incredibly, a nine-day event this year. How it happened: Last year, we added two days of optional pre-conference tutorials on the weekend before the conference as an experiment; those were so successful that this year there are tutorials on both weekends, before and after the conference, again as an experiment… but I know that at least a few of you have already signed up for all 9 days (wow).

Mon-Wed Oct 9-11: High-Performance and Low-Latency C++ (London)

On October 9-11, I’ll be in London giving a one-time repeat of “High-Performance and Low-Latency C++” (course details page). This is the same as the public course I gave in Stockholm two months ago; because that course sold out, and I was coming to Europe again for Qt World Summit anyway, we decided to do a single repeat that same week, this time in London.

Notes: (1) Some of you have emailed me asking if there will be other dates/cities, and the answer is no, sorry, I do seminars very rarely and this is the last one I have time to do for the foreseeable future. So if you are interested then this is the one to attend. (2) Some of you have also emailed me to ask whether the seminar will be recorded, and the answer is again no, sorry, the organizers are not set up for that. However, you can find all of my past Effective Concurrency writing (on which parts of this course are based) freely available via this blog, just search for that phrase or use the category tag — there’s a book’s worth of free material written by me in individual-article form.

Thu Oct 12: Qt World Summit (Berlin)

The next day, I’ll be in Berlin giving one of the keynotes at Qt World Summit. I’m not sure yet whether it’ll be the closing keynote; for more details, please check their conference schedule once it’s posted.

I look forward to seeing many of you at these events.

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I don’t get to Europe very often apart from ISO C++ standards meetings, but this spring I’ve been able to accept invitations for two English-language European events in the last week of April. If you’re interested in attending, please check out the links, and I look forward to meeting and re-meeting many of you there.

Tue-Thu Apr 25-27: High-Performance and Low-Latency C++ (Stockholm)

On April 25-27, I’ll be in Stockholm (Kista) giving a three-day seminar on “High-Performance and Low-Latency C++.” This contains updated and new material that reflects the latest C++ standards and compilers, with a focus to using modern C++11/14/17 effectively on modern hardware and memory architectures.

Note that the class size is limited to about 100, so that I’ll be able to interact with most attendees directly. Registration just opened recently and hasn’t been widely publicized yet, but today I was told that it’s already over 1/3 full. So if you or your colleagues might be interested in attending, please check out the link above; for group registrations, please contact Alfasoft directly.

Here is the summary, below; for a more detailed topic breakdown see the link above.

Description

Performance and efficiency are C++’s bread and butter, and they matter more than ever on modern hardware: In processors, single-threaded performance improvements are slowing down (unless your code is parallel); in Internet of Things, we are often asked to do more work with less hardware; and in cloud computing, processor/hardware time is often the major component of cost and so making code twice as efficient often means saving close to half the processing cost. Today, getting the highest performance and the lowest latency on modern hardware often means being aware of the hardware in ways that most other programming languages can’t – from hardware caches where simply arranging our data in the right order can give 50x speedups with otherwise identical code, to hardware parallelism where using parallel algorithms turns on high-performance parallel and vector processor hardware that otherwise sits idle.

Additionally, low latency increasingly matters at all scales: In user interfaces, low latency means responsive apps and productive users without the dreaded “wait…” donut; in financial trading, low latency regularly saves large amounts of cash; in embedded real-time systems, low latency is crucial to meeting deadlines and can even save lives. Today, this makes concurrency more important than ever, because it delivers two things: It hides latencies we have to deal with and cannot remove, from disk I/O latency to speed-of-light network latency; and it makes our code responsive by not introducing needless latencies of our own even when we’re not hiding someone else’s latency.

Goal

This intensive three day course will provide developers with the knowledge and skills required to write high-performance and low-latency code on today’s modern systems using modern C++11/14/17. During the training you’ll learn how to get the highest performance and the lowest latency on modern hardware in ways that are unique to C++, including how to arrange data to use hardware caches effectively, and how to use standard and your own custom-written parallel algorithms to harness high-performance parallel and vector processor hardware to compute results faster. You’ll also learn how to manage latency for responsive apps and for real-time systems, and techniques to hide the underlying latencies we have to deal with and cannot remove such as disk and network latency, and to make your own code responsive by not introducing needless latencies in your own code.

Sat Apr 29: ACCU closing keynote (Bristol)

Next, I’ll be heading to Bristol to catch the end of the ACCU 2017 conference, and give the closing talk on “Something(s) New in C++.” No, the title is not intentionally a tease; it’s just that I have several topics available, and I won’t be sure until about a month before the event which will be the best one to speak about. Here is the current abstract:

By the time the ACCU 2017 conference begins, C++17 is expected to be technically complete and in its final approval ballot. What comes next? Will C++ continue growing forever? Can C++ code be simplified? This is a brand-new talk of material I’ve never given before, in which I’ll present one (or more) of three proposals I’m personally working on to further improve C++ post-C++17. All follow a common theme – adding a strategic language and/or library feature to C++ that leads to significant, and sometimes dramatic, simplification of real-world C++ code. I’ll pick which one (or more) of those topics to present sometime in March.

What I can say is that, whichever topic it ends up being, it’ll be something you haven’t seen before that’s forward-looking and aimed directly toward making C++ code simpler and easier… and of course without compromising C++’s model of efficient machine-near abstraction.

I look forward to seeing many of you in Europe this spring.

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On June 25, the ISO C++ committee completed its summer meeting in Oulu, Finland, hosted by Symbio and the Finnish national body.

We again had some 100 experts officially representing nine national bodies. As usual, we met for six days Monday through Saturday, and around the clock from 8:30am till 11pm most days – evening sessions regularly went a little later than the usual 10pm because it was Midsummer and there was literally no full night all week long at that short distance from the Arctic Circle, and people commonly did a double take when they looked at their watches and were surprised to find that it was already nearly midnight.

Here’s a summary of what happened, with some details about the current ISO C++ process so you can see just how the work is progressing and getting released. I’ve tried to add some links to the relevant feature design papers, or to the papers that summarize what was done which in turn usually carry more links to the design papers.

C++17 is feature-complete, enters review period

The big news is that C++ is feature-complete, and on time! We added several more features to the C++17 working paper (see next section), then approved the result to be sent out this summer for its major ISO international comment ballot, which is the Committee Draft or “CD” ballot.

Between now and our November meeting, national bodies around the world will be reviewing the draft and reporting any concerns about feature design details and wording correctness or consistency. Then for probably the next two meetings we’ll be addressing every national body comment and recording its resolution, as well as continuing to process our own known issues lists to fine-tune the text of the standard. That usually takes two meetings, and if that’s the case again this time then we’ll be putting the finishing touches on C++17 in our November and March meetings and then, we hope, sending C++17 out for its possibly-final ballot in the spring. If we need an extra meeting, then that would extend to the July meeting next year and the possibly-final ballot in late summer.

So C++17 is and tracking to ship on schedule next year. In my March trip report, I mentioned that after completing C++11 we switched to a “train model” where we have been shipping the standard consistently every three years. So far, we have been running the trains on time: C++14 was actually the first C++ standard ever that shipped when expected, and now C++17 is on track to do it again. This is excellent news for the community because it enables implementers to track the standard closely, whereas in previous releases they often held back from implementing new features aggressively because with an open-ended schedule the committee could (and did) change its mind again about the design of some feature before the standard actually shipped. The ISO C++ committee is now sticking to a high quality bar, voting features in when they’re stable and releasing on time, which removes uncertainty and is a major reason why compilers are more in sync than ever before: After C++98 shipped, it took 5 years before we saw the first complete conforming compiler that implemented all language features (modulo bugs of course); after C++11 shipped, it took 3 years; when C++14 shipped, it took months. Now, many C++17 features are already available in major compilers, and I wouldn’t be surprised if C++17 repeated C++14’s synchronization with the community so that we see at least one major implementation that has all C++17 features in the same year that C++17 is published. This is great news for the community, because it means we have to play less of the “which compilers actually implement which features” game; true, we still need to deal with older compilers, and some compilers are still not as quick as others to ship the latest features, but all of the major compilers’ current releases are in closer sync with the standard than they’ve ever been before and even the delta between them continues to shrink, which is good news for all C++ users.

Note: Last time I mentioned that there was some thought of moving to a two-year cadence after C++17, but for now we’re staying with three years, so the next standard after C++17 will be C++20.

More features added to C++17

At this meeting, we added several more features into C++17; you can find a good summary of those features in Bryce Lelbach’s Reddit post. Again, note that these are just the ones we added at this meeting; the complete list of C++17 features is longer. For example, see my March trip report for what was added at the spring meeting.

Language features

Here are some of the more noticeable language features we added to C++17 in Oulu. I’ll merge from Bryce’s nice list (thanks Bryce!), my own comments in the previous trip report, and some new comments and examples:

Dynamic memory allocation for over-aligned data: Extending the C++11 alignof/alignas for heap allocated memory control.

Template argument deduction for constructors, so that you can write just pair p(2, 4.5); instead of pair<int,double> p(2, 4.5); or auto p = make_pair(2, 4.5);. This is pretty sweet, including that it obsoletes many “make” helpers.

template <auto>: Recall that templates can take “non-type parameters,” or ordinary compile-time values; a familiar example is std::array<widget,10> which is an array of 10 widget objects, passing 10 as a compile-time number. Well, as of C++11 we allow “auto”matically deducing the type of local variables:

auto i = 10;           // deduces int

and in the Concepts TS we allow “auto”matically deducing the type of parameters:

void f(auto value) { } // same as template <class T> void f(T value);

f(10);                 // deduces int

Now, with the template<auto> extension, C++17 will additionally allow the same to happen when you pass a value as a template parameter, which is just another place you can pass a value:

template <auto value> void f() { }

f<10>();               // deduces int

Guaranteed copy elision: When you call a function that returns an object by value, and you use the copy to initialize a local variable, the language has always said that you copy (or move) twice. You may know that, since forever, C++ has also added, “but by the way, the compiler is allowed to elide (disappear) the extra copy.” With guaranteed copy elision, in many cases the C++17 language now says you copy (or move) once; that is, compiler is now required not to perform an extra copy or move, so that copy elision is no longer an optimization but a guaranteed language feature.

Richard Smith, the proposal author, provided the following additional notes and examples that show how the copy elision guarantee depends on what happens inside the function. In some cases, such as when the function returns a temporary of the right type, the new rules guarantee that zero copies will be performed, and the return type is not even required to be copyable or movable any more:

T f() {
  return T{}; // no copy here (C++17)
}

T x = f();    // no copy here either (C++17)

In other cases, where the named return value optimization (NRVO) would apply today, there is one copy and the compiler may elide the copy, but is not guaranteed to do so because there are cases where that could not be guaranteed:

T g() {
  T t;
  return t;   // one copy, can be elided but elision is not guaranteed
}

T y = g();    // no copy here (C++17)

And if the function returns something that really requires a copy, such as returning a reference parameter, you get exactly one copy:

T h(T &t) {
  return t;   // one guaranteed copy (by necessity)
}

T z = h(x);   // no copy here (C++17)

Order of expression evaluation guarantees: This removes portability and usability bugs. In a nutshell, a number of code examples that you thought worked, now actually do work. In particular, this solves the long-standing f(new T, new T) bug that I wrote about nearly 20 years ago, fixes some examples in published books, and makes the brand-new future<T>::then chaining actually work correctly.

Inline variablesThis feature makes it easier to define global variables (that’s the bad news) correctly (that’s the good news), including in header files. The net effect is that some code people already write in practice, but shouldn’t have because it had subtle pitfalls, now works.

if constexpr: This is a very powerful feature that allows branches that are evaluated at compile time. Note that this is a disciplined compile-time “if”, not just text substitution; the code in a false branch needs to be syntactically well-formed, but doesn’t need to be semantically valid.

This lets you express some pretty powerful stuff, including that a function template can write all the special cases of its algorithm right within its body (e.g., a fast algorithm for random-access iterators, and a fallback for less powerful iterators), without writing a set of template specializations.

It also works very nicely with C++14’s “auto” return type deduction for inline functions: It’s perfectly fine for two mutually exclusive if constexpr branches to return unrelated types since only one of the branches can be taken for a given set of inputs, and the correct return type will be deduced. Of course, within the same if constexpr branch the return types have to be compatible according to the current rules. In fact, we’ll see an example of this in the next topic…

Structured bindings: This allows taking a value that contains multiple elements, such as a tuple or a struct, and binding convenient names to the individual elements – much like std::tie, except without having to have variables of the correct type already available. I was pleasantly surprised to see this one make it into C++17 even though it came in late in the cycle. Here’s a simple example of what it enables:

tuple<T1,T2,T3> f();
auto [x,y,z] = f(); // types are: T1, T2, T3

map<int,string> mymap;
auto [iter, success] = mymap.insert(value); // types are: iterator, bool

struct mystruct { int i; string s; double d; };
mystruct s = { 1, “xyzzy”s, 3.14 };
auto [x,y,z] = s; // types are: int, string, double

What if you want to add structured bindings for your own type that isn’t a struct or a tuple? I’m glad you asked, because it’s an excuse to also show off also how you can use if constexpr. Let’s say you’re the author of a type S:

class S {
   int i;
   char c[27];
   double d;
public:
   // ...
};

Now you want to allow structured bindings for your type S, and for extra marks you don’t want to bind directly to the private variables but perhaps want member c to be bound as a string_view (also adopted for C++17; see below). Here’s how do add this ability; it’s a few lines, but you only have to do it once for all users of type S:

// 1. Add tuple_size and tuple_element support
namespace std {
   template<> struct tuple_element<0,S> { using type = int; };
   template<> struct tuple_element<1,S> { using type = string_view; };
   template<> struct tuple_element<2,S> { using type = double; };
   template<> struct tuple_size<S>: public integral_constant<size_t,3> {};
}

// 2. Now add get<> support (using C++17, because why not; it’s better
// than =delete’ing the primary get<> template and adding specializations)
template<int I>
auto get(const S&) {
   if      constexpr(I == 0) return x.i;
   else if constexpr(I == 1) return string_view{x.c}; }
   else if constexpr(I == 2) return x.d;
}

Now all users of S can write code like this:

S f();  // some function that returns an S

auto [ n, s, val ] = f(); // types are int, std::string_view, and double

if (init; condition) and switch (init; condition): Just like the venerable for (int i = 0; /*…*/) loop has always allowed declaring a variable (in that example, i) that exists for the scope of the loop, we will now be able to do the same for if and switch without having to resort to today’s workaround of declaring the variable before the if or switch and then wrapping it up in { } to restrict its scope. Here’s an example of the new cleaner syntax, which allows more tightly-scoped variables:

map<int,string> mymap;

if (auto result = mymap.insert(value); result.second) {
    // insert succeeded, and result is valid for this block
    use(result.first);  // ok
    // ...
} // result is destroyed here

In fact, you might have noticed that I used a similar example for both structured bindings and for if/switch initialization. It took Reddit about 30 minutes to discover that they’re great together, like peanut butter and jelly:

// better together: structured bindings + if initializer

if (auto [iter, succeeded] = mymap.insert(value); succeeded) {
    use(iter);  // ok
    // ...
} // iter and succeeded are destroyed here

Two language features that didn’t make it (yet)

Of the new language features I mentioned last time, only two didn’t make it into C++17:

  • operator. (dot) to allow smart references (in parallel with smart pointers) and much more. During final core language wording review, the authors discovered a problem that couldn’t be fixed in real time at this meeting, and was pulled back while the authors fix the proposal. This proposal is still active and is expected to come back with a fix to that problem very soon, possibly as soon as in the next week or two for the post-meeting mailing; I’m hearing some rumblings that national bodies might mention this in their summer ballot comments, so we might see it again during C++17 ballot resolution, else I’d expect it to be one of the first things added to the draft standard once C++17 ships.
  • Defaulted comparisons, to generate ==, !=, <, <=, >, >= for types that don’t write them by hand. The current version of the proposal is opt-out, and would generate comparisons for existing types. When the proposal got to the full committee, we discovered that the committee didn’t have consensus to approve the paper’s opt-out model; a number of people spoke up for an opt-in model instead. This proposal might eventually come back but probably not soon.

Standard library features

Here are some of the library features that made it into C++17 at this meeting:

variant<>: Don’t use raw unions any more. This addition completes the trifecta of std::any and std::optional (which were already added to C++17). The new std::variant is a type-safe union; for more background see also my fall meeting trip report. Here’s an example adapted from the paper that shows how you can use it:

variant<int, float, string> v, w;
v = “xyzzy”;         // now v contains a string
v = 12;              // now v contains an int

int i = get<int>(v); // ok, because it contains an int

w = get<int>(v);     // ok, assign to another variant
w = get<0>(v);       // same effect as the previous line
w = v;               // same effect as the previous line

get<double>(v);      // compile-time error: v can’t contain a double
get<3>(v);           // compile-time error: v doesn’t have 4 types

try {
  get<float>(w);     // will throw: w contains an int, not a float
}
catch (bad_variant_access&) {}

Moving nodes between map<>, unordered_map<>, set<>, and unordered_set<>: You will now be able to directly move internal nodes from one node-based container directly into another container of the same type (differing at most in the comparator template parameter), either one node at a time or the whole container. Why is that important? Because it guarantees no memory allocation overhead, no copying of keys or values, and even no exceptions if the container’s comparison function doesn’t throw. The mechanics are provided by new functions .extract and .move, and corresponding new .insert overloads. Here’s an example adapted from the paper:

map<int, string> src {{1,”one”}, {2,”two”}, {3,”buckle my shoe”}};
map<int, string> dst {{3,”three”}};

dst.insert(src.extract(src.find(1))); // iterator version
dst.insert(src.extract(2));           // key type version
auto r = dst.insert(src.extract(3));  // key type version
    // note: this last one will fail because dst already contains 3;
    // the node is owned by r, the returned struct

// At this point we have the following state:
//   src == {}
//   dst == {{1,“one”}, {2,“two”}, {3,“three”}}
//   r.position == dst.begin() + 2
//   r.inserted == false
//   r.node == {3,“buckle my shoe”}

// We can go back and retry the failed insert with a different key:
r.node.key() = 4;                      // use a non-conflicting value
dst.insert(r.position, std::move(r.node));  // now succeeds

Extended memory management tools for in-place construction and destruction: These include destroy(_at|_n), uninitialized_move(_n), uninitialized_value_construct(_n), and uninitialized_default_construct(_n).

In case you missed it: string_view also in C++17

C++17 also contains a number of other useful features. I’ve mentioned these before, including “small” but widely-used features like optional and any, right up to Parallel STL. But let me just take a moment to remark again on the wonderfulness of string_view, which is a non-owning view of a contiguous string owned by someone else.

If you have a const string& parameter, consider just changing it to string_view. As Mark Isaacson mentioned in his NDC talk earlier this month, it’s pretty rare that you can get a performance boost by just doing a global search-and-replace, but Mark points out you can pretty much do that by globally replacing const string& with string_view (with one exception noted in the next paragraph). Why is this often more efficient? In particular, when the caller passes something like a string literal as an argument, if your function takes it via a const string& parameter that means the caller has to convert the string literal to a temporary string object, which typically incurs a heap allocation and deallocation, whereas passing it to a string_view incurs no allocation overhead at all.

However, beware one potential pitfall, especially until more of the world has migrated to string_view: If your function f(/*some string*/ x) internally calls one or more other functions that still take a string& (either const or non-const), then let your function f continue to take x by const string& and don’t change it to string_view. The reason is that if f is called with an actual string object, then f(const string& x) can pass it along painlessly by reference, whereas f(string_view x) would avoid a copy when entering f but would need to create a new string internally just to pass it along to the other function that needs a string. Bottom line: If you know your function needs to call other functions that you don’t control and that take (possibly const) string&, then you should probably leave your function taking const string& too.

C++17: Recognizably new

C++17 will pervasively change the way we write C++ code, just as C++11 did. As these and other new features become available, we’re going to see new code using structured bindings, if/switch scope variables, string_view, optional, any, variant, Parallel STL, and more all over the place.

Here’s my personal litmus test for whether we’ve changed the way people program: Just as you can take a look at a screenful of code and tell that it’s C++11 (not C++98), if you can look at a screenful of code and tell that it’s C++17, then we’ve changed the way we program C++. I think C++17 will meet that bar.

Here’s a little “C++17 demo” put together by committee member Thomas Köppe, who is the author of the if/switch initializer proposal. It shows off a few of the features that will soon be available as part of C++17, and how they work together. Note this uses some other new C++17 features I didn’t specifically mention. I’ll let the comments speak for themselves; thanks, Thomas, for providing this demo.

unordered_map<string, unique_ptr<Foo>> items;
vector<unique_ptr<Foo>> standby;

// Desired semantics of f: If there is currently no item 'id', install
// 'foo' as item 'id'. Otherwise, put 'foo' on the standby list for later.

//------------------------------------------------
// Before C++17: 7 lines + 4 pitfalls
//
void f(string id, unique_ptr<Foo> foo) {
   auto it = items.find(id);
   if (it == items.end()) {
      auto p = items.emplace(move(id), move(foo));
      p.first->second->launch();
   } else {
      standby.push_back(move(foo));
      standby.back()->wait_for_notification();
   }

   // Notes:  
   // * Variable 'id' can no longer be used (moved-from); or...  
   // * ...would need to pass by 'const string& id' and force copying.
   // * Map lookup performed twice. Ordered map could use lower_bound +
   //   hint, but unordered map cannot.  
   // * (Cannot emplace unconditionally, because it might destroy *foo.)
}

//------------------------------------------------
// With C++17: 4 lines + none of those pitfalls
//
void f(string_view id, unique_ptr<Foo> foo) {
   if (auto [pos, inserted] = items.try_emplace(id, move(foo)); inserted){
      pos->second->launch();
   } else {
      standby.emplace_back(move(foo))->wait_for_notification();
   }
}

Other progress

Because this time our focus was on completing C++17, we didn’t spend as much time on the other TSes as we did at a normal meeting, but we made progress on some of the TSes and will continue with all of them next time. In particular, the Reflection and 2D Graphics proposals received several hours of review each and are making great progress; at our next meeting we’ll continue with Ranges, Networking, Library Fundamentals 2, Parallelism 2, Modules, Coroutines, Contracts, and more.

What’s next

This summer, we’re going to send out the feature-complete C++17 out for its major international comment ballot. After that, we’ll address ballot comments at the November 2016 and February-March 2017 meetings and plan to send C++17 out for its final approval ballot then.

Once C++17 ships next year, I expect we’ll start looking at merging more of the TS “beta branches” into the C++ “trunk.” Here’s an updated snapshot of our status:

wg21-timeline

Thank you again to our host Symbio, to the over 100 experts at Oulu last week, and to the many more who participate in standardization through their national bodies, without whose efforts and willing collaborative spirit these results would not be achievable. The over four million C++ users worldwide benefit, and appreciate it very much too. Thank you, all, for your many contributions to Standard C++.

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On March 5, the ISO C++ committee completed its winter meeting in Jacksonville, FL, USA. We had record-tying attendance, with over 110 experts officially representing eight national bodies. As usual, we met for six days Monday through Saturday, and around the clock from 8:30am till 10pm most days, after which many people still went back to hang out in the lobby or their rooms to update papers. — The hotel had a baby grand piano outside the main meeting room lobby, and so late at night you could often walk by and find one of several committee members playing a tune, while as usual people collaborated on their proposals, perched on couches and tables clustered around glowing rectangles, incanting standardese to the soft strains of Russian folk ballads and arena rock.

Here’s a summary of what happened, with some details about the current ISO C++ process so you can see just how the work is progressing and getting released. I’ve tried to add some links to the relevant feature design papers, or to the papers that summarize what was done which in turn usually carry more links to the design papers.

Note: The features listed below are those approved for C++17 at this meeting only. Previous meetings added other features that are already in the working draft.

What we did: Merging into C++17

This meeting was a major milestone in two ways.

First, we largely completed choosing the target set of features the committee felt were ready for C++17. Some had their specification wording adopted last week into the working draft for the C++ international standard (IS), and a few more are targeted to be adopted at our next meeting in June in Oulu, Finland, following which C++17 is intended to be sent out for its major international comment ballot.

Second, and perhaps even more importantly, we had the first merge of the new Technical Specification (TS) “beta feature branches” into the C++ international standard “trunk.” The committee considered five candidates, and adopted the first four as ready for C++17, with reports from implementers and users that the features were baked and unlikely to need future breaking design changes. The criteria for whether the committee thinks a given feature is ready to merge will vary by feature; this time, the committee ended up merging all the ones that had been completed and in beta testing for a year or more.

The four accepted branches merged into C++17 were:

  • The Parallelism TS, a.k.a. “Parallel STL.” This includes parallelized versions of most STL algorithms, which get a new execution policy where you can opt into running them in parallel on multiple cores and/or on multiple vector lanes—hardware that is now ubiquitous in the mainstream, as most medium- and high-end smartphones are both multicore and have vector units built in. For example, C++17 now allows: for_each(std::par, first, last, [](auto& x){ process(x); });.
  • The Library Fundamentals 1 TS (most parts), adding a new round of library components for C++17 including any, optional, string_view, shared_ptr for arrays, memory pools, search and sampling algorithms, and more. (An example of “more”: Have you ever wanted to pass a tuple that contains a function call’s argument list and expand it into the individual arguments? Now you can, using built-in standard functionality.)
  • The File System TS, which allows portable handling of files, paths, symbolic links, and more.
  • The Mathematical Special Functions IS, which was originally part of the first Library TR back in the 2000s and has now finally gained approval to be added to the standard for C++17.

We also voted the following other features directly into C++17 without going through a TS beta first:

  • Lambdas are now allowed inside constexpr functions.
  • Lambdas can now capture a copy of *this object by value, using the notation [*this]. It also works in combination with default capture, so [=, *this] is also allowed.
  • The range-for loop can now deal with generalized ranges where the “end” type is different from the “begin” type, such as sentinel-based and counted ranges, which will work well with the Ranges TS work.
  • The [[fallthrough]] attribute lets you designate that you are intentionally letting a switch’s case block fall through to the next block without a break.
  • The [[nodiscard]] attribute lets you annotate a return value to say that it should not be ignored by the caller, or annotate a type to apply to all uses of that type as a returned value. Canonical examples include the return value of std::async where ignoring the return value would mean being not async at all, and the return value of a container’s empty() function where people sometimes confuse empty() and clear() and we don’t want them to think calling empty() has side effects if they call it by mistake.
  • The [[maybe_unused]] attribute lets you annotate an intentionally unused variable or parameter.
  • Various other minor improvements and fixes.

Evolution also approved the following features that were not voted in at this meeting, but are currently on track for possible approval for C++17 at our next meeting in June for inclusion in the C++17 international comment ballot (note the links are to the pre-meeting paper versions; for example, in the paper that proposed constexpr_if the committee changed the syntax to if constexpr at the meeting):

A few more, such as structured bindings, might make it too but have not yet received Evolution design approval, so we’ll see in June if there’s support in Evolution and Core to call them ready.

C++17 will change the way we write C++ code, just as C++11 and C++14 did. For example, string_view and optional are expected to be heavily used in writing interfaces. And with parallel STL often you can just add std::par or std::par_vec, and your algorithm will speed up by a factor of 2-4 on ordinary hardware; we had a compelling story with C++11 move semantics where we could say “just recompile your code and it’ll often be noticeably faster,” and this is likely to be an even bigger improvement.

Other progress

We also made significant progress on other work, including that we now have opened five TSes to launch our next round of beta feature branches, most of which we expect to be sent out for their “debutante” international comment ballots in the next handful of meetings:

  • Ranges, Networking, Library Fundamentals 2, and Parallelism 2: We approved creating these at our last meeting, and officially adopted the first working drafts for all four of these TSes at this meeting. These form the “first four” nucleus of the next round of TSes to be developed by the committee and are now being officially specified in detail.
  • Modules: Recall that at the last meeting we reached design agreement to start work on Modules. At this meeting, we approved the initial wording to officially start active work on a Modules specification as a TS. That brings us to five active TSes in this second round.

And there are more to come:

  • Coroutines: These are being targeted for a new TS (possibly Concurrency 2 or their own TS) so that we have additional time to finish investigating an alternative proposal. I expect this to settle out within another couple of years and then make progress in some form (either the current proposal, or the alternative one if it pans out equally well, or possibly both) into the following C++ standard.
  • Concurrency 2: The concurrency group reports that they hope to launch a second Concurrency TS later this year at the Issaquah meeting. This might include coroutines as above. It might include features like synchronic, and there is still hope that the group might yet get design agreement on executors (a way to control where to execute work, such as where to run a parallel task, or where to execute a callback or continuation); if so, it would naturally go into the second Concurrency TS.
  • 2D Graphics: The 2D Graphics proposal that specifies a portable C++ library to wrap the Cairo C API has progressed to design and wording review. It’s big, so it will take a couple of meetings to process it, but it’s looking good that we could get an initial TS draft started this year.

At this meeting we also reached a design agreement on contracts, so that we now think we have a design that the competing proposers agree on and that the committee as a whole likes, and we hope to get initial draft specification wording later this year if this trend continues. Once we see the work, the committee can decide on a preferred target vehicle (TS or straight into the IS).

The committee also continued to spend time at the meeting incubating other work, including reflection APIs.

The main surprise last week was that the “part 1” unified call syntax proposal made it to full committee but we there discovered that there wasn’t yet consensus to adopt it. The authors (Bjarne Stroustrup and myself with the help of a number of experts) are continuing to work between meetings to see if consensus can be achieved by the June meeting.

Finally, we retired a TS that was not completed: We ended up not getting consensus on the experimental material intended for the Arrays TS, so last week we made the decision to retire that one.

Status of concepts and modules

Here are some specific notes about two particular TSes that everyone agrees are important and game-changing for how we will write C++ code: Concepts and modules.

Concepts was published as a TS less than a year ago, with the first production compiler implementation to ship soon as part of GCC 6.0. Despite its relative newness and lack of field experience, the committee seriously considered adopting it already for C++17 at this meeting. It was right on the edge: There was already a strong minority who felt it was ready to add to C++17, and a modest majority preferred to wait another year or two and get more experience with shipping implementations and field use of the feature.

Virtually everyone who spoke praised the feature as important, and either ready or getting close to ready, for adopting into the C++ standard. The only major distinction of opinion was whether or not they supported putting it specifically in C++17; those who spoke against that generally expressed that this feature was so important that we want to be sure we get it right and approve it once we have more experience using it in real world users’ code. My impression is that concepts is now one of the strongest feature candidates moving along well in the pipeline and adoption in the trunk IS working draft post-C++17.

At the October meeting, modules for the first time achieved a design consensus in the Evolution working group (EWG), with a “phase 1” that everyone agreed on and a “phase 2” that could be added. The most notable part of “phase 2” is determining whether and how to allow a module to carry and export macros. In October, EWG decided to aim modules for a TS covering “phase 1” and asked the proposers to come back with detailed specification wording, which they did for this meeting.

Last week, the whole committee voted to start a TS project and turn that document into the first working draft. Here’s a subtle but important note: This milestone of “create an initial working draft” is important, but usually not all that impactful to the community. The reason this one is different, and is actually very important to users, is that we knew that there are likely two major vendor implementation efforts waiting to start work on implementing support for modules in major compilers, but who were waiting until there was some draft specification that had been approved as a basis for development by the committee. We knew that having “at least an initial working draft” was a sufficient bar for the implementers to get started, and so despite our heavy workload this week focusing on C++17-targeted items (which this is not), I asked the Core working group to make a special effort to prioritize getting this project to this stage because we knew it would unblock new implementation efforts. We are very pleased to see this succeed, and look forward to active work beginning soon on more implementations of modules in several major compilers.

The pipeline

There are members who are very disappointed that we didn’t include more in C++17, especially concepts which was very close. To understand where we’re at, consider the following snapshot of our current “trunk” and “beta feature branches” status, shown in the context of three eras of C++ standardization laid side by side: C++9x, C++0x, and C++1x.

wg21-timeline

The C++ international standard (IS) is the “trunk” containing everything that is formally part of C++. Every time it is published, we have a new official international legal specification for C++.

A Technical Specification (TS) is a “beta feature branch” shipped as a separate published document. The contents of a TS are the committee’s best guess at what C++ users need, with a lower confidence bar on that guess because it is a “beta” and we do get a chance to make corrections before setting it in stone in the standard. In 2015, we completed our first round of six published major TSes, and are launching a second round.

This is a turning point: We just finished filling the pipeline, and this meeting saw the first merge from the beta branches. The disappointment came from that some would have liked to merge another branch or two. The good news is that, those branches are already shipped beta specifications that vendors can implement—in fact, most of them already have at least one supported implementation in a production compiler or library product. The branches that did not quite land in time to merge for C++17 can be expected to merge early in the next cycle—and in the meantime we’re still shipping the “trunk” and its ready features too. Now that the pipeline is full, we can expect features to leave the pipeline and merge regularly at high quality, which is essential with over four million C++ users worldwide relying on our work.

Notes:

  • Each bar starts at the meeting where the detailed specification work officially began (usually “adopt initial draft”) and ends at the meeting that technical work was completed (usually “start final ballot / send for publication”).
  • Arrowheads join the IS at the meeting at which a TS feature branch was merged into the IS trunk.
  • In the current decade, the smaller boxes show full ISO C++ meetings—sometimes two per year, sometimes three per year—and highlights the meetings where we launch a C++ CD (ISO comment ballot, light blue) or DIS (ISO approval ballot, dark blue).
  • I’ve omitted the 1998-2001 hiatus because no new features were under active development in that period. The committee was voluntarily taking a break, and also catching up with C++98 bug reports while compilers caught up with the standard.

From “what” to “when”: C++0x to C++1x

During C++0x, the best and most solid parts of C++0x were the parts that shipped first as “beta” in the Library Extensions TR. That’s the model we’ve now embraced as the norm, rather than as the exception.

C++0x followed the “what” or “feature” model: We picked “what” features were in the standard and released whenever they turned out to be ready. That means we giving up on being able to predict “when” we’d ship, and even while C++0x was repeatedly delayed and the “0x is hex” jokes started, we released nothing in the standard the meantime; even features that had been approved into the C++ draft standard in 2004 had to wait until 2011 before they appeared in an official final standard. C++11 was a good release, but we underestimated “when” it would be ready by as much as five years.

C++1x follows the “when” or “train” model: We’re picking “when” to release the standard regularly, currently every three years, and including whatever features are ready. This still allows big long-pole features to be worked on; they’re just worked on concurrently until ready to merge. I’m pleased that the committee seems to be generally quite happy with the result. In Jacksonville, several experts came up to me to say that they had noticed how we had shipped more work in six years than in any other six-year period in the history of ISO C++. This would not be possible without the committee’s help and support; thank you again, everyone!

Although the train model has benefits, any model is also a tradeoff. The train model means we can’t slip a few meetings to try to “squeak in” another feature, and in fact we didn’t ship everything we hoped to ship in C++17, notably concepts… but neither did we at the same point in the C++0x cycle, in 2007. Now as in 2007, we are at a point where we have some good new features ready to ship in the standard, and at the same time we have several large desirable features in flight that are “almost but not quite” ready yet. In 2007, items on the edge or “just over the horizon” included work like threads and C++0x concepts, and in 2016 they include concepts “lite” and ranges. In both cases, those features are actually 3-4 years away (whether we knew it then or not). The difference is that in 2016, we’re shipping what is ready while still continuing development at full speed on the others.

Also, we initially thought a train model would let us alternate “minor” and “major” releases. The idea was that C++14 could be a “minor” release, and C++17 a “major” release. What actually happened was that we learned the pipeline+train model leads to regular “medium” releases as the pipeline moves at a steady pace and we regularly release what’s ready. As it turns out, C++14 was more than a fine-tuning release; it included powerful features like generic lambdas. Conversely, C++17 won’t be a “major release” on the scale of C++11, but neither could it be because C++11 took nine years to develop.

Never before in the history of C++ has the standard maintained such high specification quality, never before has it released on a regular predictable schedule… and as we removed that quality and schedule uncertainty, it’s no accident that never before have all the major compilers tracked the standard so closely, which benefits the whole worldwide C++ community.

How to define “progress”: Being unblocked to move to the next stage

How do we know we’re making progress? There is a tendency to emphasize “what features ship in C++.next,” a specific version; this was the committee’s mental model during C++0x.

In C++1x, the key is to keep the pipeline moving. What I monitor is that that major proposals are unblocked so the proposers can do work toward the next stage between meetings. As long as each proposal is not blocked, it’s moving forward toward the IS and “what ships in C++.next” will take care of itself as soon as it’s baked and ready.

Take a few minutes to read The life of an ISO proposal: From “cool idea” to “international standard.” Here are how some major work moved along at this meeting, in the context of those Stages:

  • Ranges, Networking, Library Fundamentals 3, and Parallelism 2: Stage 6 -> 7. All of these reached Stage 6 at our last meeting, and reached Stage 7 at this meeting. They’re all moving, and they’re well along in their development cycles and getting ready to debut in their international TS comment ballots in the near future.
  • Modules: Stage 3 -> 6. This reached Stage 3 at our previous meeting in November, and is already at Stage 6 at this meeting—that’s very rapid progress in one meeting!
  • Contracts: Stage 2 -> 3. This was stalled for a long time in Stage 2, and thanks to lots of work by the proposers (brokered personally by Bjarne Stroustrup) at the last meeting in November and then between meetings, it finally broke the logjam and reached Stage 3 at this meeting. Now it’s finally unblocked and on track again.
  • Coroutines, and 2D Graphics: Stage 3. These have both been at Stage 3 for a couple of meetings, and should reach Stages 4 and 5 over the next meeting or three.

If we focus primarily on each proposal moving incrementally to Stage N+1 and identifying and removing impediments, getting great new work in each new C++.next release of the standard becomes very nearly automatic.

What’s next

Our next meeting is this June in Oulu, Finland, where we plan to send a feature-complete C++17 out for its major international comment ballot. After that, we’ll address ballot comments at the November 2016 and February-March 2017 meetings and plan to send C++17 out for its final approval ballot then.

What’s after C++17? The default is to continue on the 3-year cycle (aim for C++20 then C++23), but we’re also thinking about whether to try out going to a 2-year cycle (aim for C++19, and if that works then C++21 and C++23). We’ll discuss that later this year as we see how C++17 and current/future TS plans are coming together, and should have more definite plans to report in a meeting or two.

Thank you again to the over 110 experts at Jacksonville last week, and the many more who participate in standardization through their national bodies, without whose efforts and willing collaborative spirit these results would not be achievable. The over four million C++ users worldwide benefit, and appreciate it very much too. Thank you, all, for your many contributions to Standard C++.

Acknowledgments

Thank you to everyone who provided input data and/or review of drafts of this trip report, including but not limited to: JF Bastien, Steve Clamage, Marshall Clow, Gabriel Dos Reis, William M. (Mike) Miller, Nathan Myers, Clark Nelson, Gor Nishanov, Peter Sommerlad, John Spicer, Bjarne Stroustrup, Ville Voutilainen, Jonathan Wakely, Nathan Wilson, and Jeffrey Yasskin.

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