@Alf, @Herb – I don’t quite get the [[noreturn]] example. While it may (not) compile on VC++, (as far as I understand) it does not carry any semantic meaning, and, what’s more, it is *perfectly* safe for any compiler that sees [[noreturn]] to just ignore it — the runtime behaviour vs. VC++ shouldn’t be changed at all.
So how is [[noreturn]] in the same camp as “restrict” ??? (I agree it may(?) be in the same camp as final and override.)
I will quote Bjarne: (http://www2.research.att.com/~bs/C++0xFAQ.html#attributes)
> There is a reasonable fear that attributes will be used to create language dialects.
> The recommendation is to use attributes to only control things that do not affect the meaning
> of a program but might help detect errors (e.g. [[noreturn]])
> or help optimizers (e.g. [[carries_dependency]]).
Yes, this argument was used. I’m (even) more conservative than Bjarne on this one.
People spoke up for two main different views on the question, “what does it mean to say [[attributes]] should not affect language semantics?” For convenience I’ll label these as the “weak” and “strong” views. Both views agree that if a program is valid both with and without the attribute, it should have exactly the same meaning both ways. Where the two views/camps differ is on whether it counts as “changing the meaning of the program” if a program that is valid if the attribute is ignored is rejected (fails to compile) if the attribute is observed:
- The “weak” view says that’s okay because it didn’t really change the meaning of code that could ever execute, it just caused it to fail to compile. (I know, [[noreturn]] seems like it’s doing that… but it actually doesn’t quite meet this definition in my opinion, see below.)
- The “strong” view, which I strongly support, says that calling a program illegal not only is the most dramatic semantic change possible, but also should be considered a nonconforming extension because it rejects code that is legal in the standard. (I know, [[noreturn]] in particular is standard… but it’s still problematic for this reason, see below.)
On principle, I do not like opening the door to let compiler writers use [[attributes]] as an excuse to not respect legal ISO C++ programs. And I say that as someone who works on a C++ compiler team and actively does C++ language extension design, and having the excuse of disabling part of ISO C++ that I don’t like by throwing in an [[attribute]] could be useful. Don’t get me wrong, there are corner cases of C++ I would like to turn off, but I try hard (and so far successfully) to refrain from doing such a thing without ISO C++’s blessing because it would break source code portability. Encouraging the view that nonstandard [[attributes]] can be a legitimate excuse to reject conforming C++ programs strikes me as putting a live grenade in a public square with a “pull me” tag on the pin. The whole point and primary benefit of having an ISO standard for C++ is to guarantee source portability; this weakens that, and for that reason I view it as a dangerous position to take.
However, in general the “weak” interpretation prevailed, and on those grounds [[noreturn]] and [[carries_dependency]] remained an attribute. I didn’t fight it because at least we got to remove [[final]], [[override]] and [[base_check]] as attributes, which was my primary concern since those would see far more use, and as long as we fixed those I was happy to say I could live with the others in order to get a consensus standard.
Post-Mortem: Assessing [[noreturn]]
Disclaimer: The following is an informational analytical exercise, not a public lobbying for a change. I support where we ended up as a whole to get C++11, it is probably too late to tweak [[noreturn]], and I consciously didn’t pursue making the following arguments at the time because [[noreturn]] (and [[carries_dependency]] are so rarely used that I can live with them, and you have to be willing to give some ground to get a consensus standard – the important thing was to get [[final]], [[override]], and [[base_check]] out and then stop while you’re ahead.
With that disclaimer in place, let me present counterarguments to show why I believe that in an ideal world [[noreturn]] shouldn’t be an attribute because it really is a keyword in [[attributes]] clothing and doesn’t actually meet either the weak or the strong view:
- I don’t think that [[noreturn]] meets the bar set by the weak view, because it does more than just cause programs to fail to compile. In my opinion, adding [[noreturn]] does change the meaning of a conforming program, because the C++11 standard says in 7.6.3/2: “If a function f is called where f was previously declared with the noreturn attribute and f eventually returns, the behavior is undefined. … [Note: Implementations are encouraged to issue a warning if a function marked [[noreturn]] might return. —end note ]” – Even if respecting a [[noreturn]] did cause a compiler to reject some code (which is not required by the standard, and is not even mentioned even in the non-normative note which just talks about maybe issuing a warning), that means that void f(); and [[noreturn]] void f(); do not have the same semantics – returning from the first is always defined behavior (if you do it), and returning from the second is undefined behavior. This isn’t just a language-lawyerly argument either – the reason the standard says “undefined behavior” here is because that’s how the standard explicitly gives latitude to optimizers – it’s saying that “a compiler optimizer may assume the function doesn’t return, and optimize the code in ways that could cause different execution (even catch-fire semantics) if f ever actually does return.” Telling the compiler it may rely on this attribute to have meaning is, to me, clearly giving the attribute a language meaning and so changes the program’s semantics if it is present. So I don’t think it’s actually true that the presence of [[noreturn]] doesn’t affect language semantics.
- It also doesn’t meet the strong view and discourages portability, by opening the door for using nonstandard attributes as a reason to reject conforming code. Now, it’s true that [[noreturn]] is in the standard itself, and so we might be tempted to say it’s not like a nonstandard attribute in this way that reduces portability, but it is – you cannot reliably write portable C++11 code under the assumption that [[noreturn]] has no semantic meaning and can be ignored. That’s because adding [[noreturn]] really does change the meaning of a function declaration (by adding guarantees that the optimizer can use, as described above) and so you really need to treat it as though it were a language keyword – because it is, just dressed in [[attributes]] clothing.
So in my view [[noreturn]] is a keyword dressed in [[attributes]] clothing.
Having said all that, experts do disagree, and the two camps have simply had to agree to disagree on this question – we got unanimous consensus on the standard, even though [[noreturn]] and [[carries_dependency]] are a bit of a sore point, because everyone was satisfied enough that we at least averted having [[final]], [[override]] and [[base_check]].