This special Guru of the Week series focuses on contracts. We covered some basics of preconditions in GotW #100. This time, let’s see how we can use preconditions in some practical examples…
1. Consider these functions, expanded from an article by Andrzej Krzemieński: 
// Adapted from  auto is_in_values (int val, int min, int max) -> bool; // true iff val is in the values [min, max] auto is_in_container (int val, int idx_min, int idx_max) -> bool; // true iff container[i]==val for some i in [idx_min, idx_max] template <typename T, typename Iter> auto is_in_range (T val, Iter first, Iter last) -> bool; // true iff *i==val for some i in [first,last)
How many ways could a caller of each function get the arguments wrong, but that would silently compile without error? Name as many different ways as you can.
2. Show how can you improve the function declarations in Question 1 by:
(a) just grouping parameters, using a struct with public variables
(b) just using an encapsulated class, using a class with private variables (an abstraction with its own invariant)
(c) just using post-C++20 contract preconditions (not yet valid C++, but something like the syntax in )
In each case, how many of the possible kinds of mistakes for each function can the approach prevent?
3. Consider these three examples, where each shows expressing a boolean condition either as a function precondition or as an encapsulated invariant inside a new type:
// (a) A vector that is sorted template <typename T> void f( vector<T> const& v ) [[pre( is_sorted(v) )]] ; template <typename T> void f( sorted<vector<T>> const& v ); // (b) A vector that is not empty template <typename T> void f( vector<T> const& v ) [[pre( !v.empty() )]] ; template <typename T> void f( not_empty<vector<T>> const& v ); // (c) A pointer that is not null void f( int* p ) [[pre( p != nullptr )]] ; void f( not_null<int*> p );
In each of these cases, which way is better? Explain your answer.
 A. Krzemieński. “Contracts, preconditions and invariants” (Andrzej’s C++ blog, December 2020).
 G. Dos Reis, J. D. Garcia, J. Lakos, A. Meredith, N. Myers, and B. Stroustrup. “P0542: Support for contract based programming in C++” (WG21 paper, June 2018). Subsequent EWG discussion favored changing “expects” to “pre” and “ensures” to “post,” and to keep it as legal compilable (if unenforced) C++20 for this article I also modified the syntax from : to ( ). That’s not a statement of preference, it’s just so the examples can compile today to make them easier to check.